South African History

Monday, 12 April 2010 14:31 administrator
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What a remarkably tumultuous past this country has had! We've tried to put together a BRIEF overview of the major events that shaped our present in the time-line below.
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A BRIEF CALENDAR OF SOUTH AFRICAN HISTORY

 

· 100 000 B.C. onwards Stone Age San (Bushmen) hunter-gatherers and Khoikhoi (Hottentot) pastoralists pursue nomadic lifestyles in southern Africa.

· 300 A.D. onwards Iron Age Negroid peoples move south from Central Africa to settle many areas of South Africa.

· 1488 - Portuguese navigator Bartolomeu Dias rounds the Cape of Good Hope in quest of a sea route to the East.

· 1652 - The Dutch East India Company establishes a refreshment station at the Cape under Jan van Riebeeck

· 1690 - Dutch settlers begin to move eastwards into the hinterland, displacing the Khoikhoi and San.

· 1779 - First conflict on the Eastern Frontier between Dutch settlers and Negroid (Xhosa) peoples.

· 1806 - Britain occupies the Cape.

· 1820 - First English settlers (5 000) arrive in the Eastern Cape.

· 1834 - Disgruntled Dutch (Boer) settlers begin “Great Trek” into the interior to escape British control within the Cape Colony.

· 1852 to 1854 - Trekkers granted independence from Britain in their own republics : the Transvaal and the Orange Free State.

· 1860 - First Indian indentured labourers arrive in Natal.

· 1867 - First discovery of diamonds in the Northern Cape area.

· 1879 - British armies finally overcome Zulus in Anglo-Zulu War

· 1886 - Discovery of Witwatersrand goldfields and the birth of Johannesburg.

· 1899 to 1902 - Anglo-Boer War between Britain and the 2 Boer Republics. At the Peace of Vereeniging, the Transvaal and Free State become British colonies.

· 1910 - Founding of the Union of South Africa.

· 1913 - Natives Land Act passed, giving blacks 13% of the land. Influx Control and Pass Laws restricting movements of Africans in “white” South Africa implemented.

· 1936 - Blacks removed from the common voters’ roll.

· 1948 - The National Party under D.F. Malan defeats General Smuts’s United Party in general election on platform of "Apartheid". A plethora of laws controlling every aspect of South Africans' lives follows.

· 1949 - Mixed Marriages Act.

· 1950 - Group Areas, Population Registration, Separate Representation of Voters, Immorality and Suppression of Communism Acts.

· 1952 - Defiance Campaign launched by the African National Congress.

· 1953 - Bantu Education and Separate Amenities Acts.

· 1956 - Coloureds removed from the common voters’ roll.

· 1960 - 69 people killed at Sharpeville in demonstrations against the Pass Laws. A.N.C. and other black nationalist organisations banned.

· 1961 = South Africa leaves Commonwealth; becomes Republic of South Africa.; A.N.C. adopts armed struggle, and military wing (Umkhonto weSizwe) is founded.

· 1963 - Rivonia Trial ends : Nelson Mandela and many others sentenced to life imprisonment on Robben Island.

· 1976 = Riots break out in Soweto on 16 June and spread to the rest of the country.

· 1977 - U.N. Security Council imposes mandatory sanctions against South Africa.

· 1983 - P.W. Botha’s government begins “reform” programme, extending separate racial franchise to Coloureds and Indians, but excluding Africans.

· 1986 - U.S. Congress imposes sanctions. Mixed Marriages, Influx Control and Pass Laws abolished.

· 1989 - F.W. de Klerk becomes State President.

· 1990 - A.N.C. and other liberation organisations unbanned; release of Mandela and other activists; negotiations on majority rule begin; A.N.C. suspends armed struggle.

· 1993 - U.N. lifts sanctions.

· 1994 - A.N.C. wins first non-racial election, and Mandela inaugurated as South Africa’s first black President; South Africa rejoins Commonwealth and U.N.

· 1996 - Final constitution of the new South Africa signed into law.

Last Updated on Sunday, 05 February 2012 09:35

Travel Quotes

Travel Quotes
Thursday, 12 August 2010

“It is good to have an end to journey toward; but it is the journey that matters, in the end.” Ernest Hemingway

"The only man I envy is the man who has not yet been to Africa - for he has so much to look forward to."
Richard Mullin.

"Tourists don't know where they've been; travellers don't know where they're going."
Paul Theroux.

“For my part, I travel not to go anywhere, but to go. I travel for travel's sake. The great affair is to move.”

Robert Louis Stevenson, Travels with a Donkey.


“The whole object of travel is not to set foot on foreign land; it is at last to set foot on one's own country as a foreign land.”
G.K. Chesterton.


“If you reject the food, ignore the customs, fear the religion and avoid the people, you might better stay home.”
James Michener.


“The journey not the arrival matters.”
T. S. Eliot.

“Twenty years from now, you will be more disappointed by the things you didn’t do than by the ones you did do. So throw off the bowlines, sail away from the safe harbour. Catch the trade winds in your sails. Explore. Dream. Discover.”
Mark Twain.

“Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry and narrow-mindedness.”
Mark Twain.


“We shall not cease from exploration
And the end of all our exploring
Will be to arrive where we started
And know the place for the first time.”
T.S. Eliot, Little Gidding – The Four Quartets.


“Everything in Africa bites, but the safari bug is worst of all.”
Brian Jackman.

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